MASCULINITY/FEMININITY (a more general definition should be gender bias)

Masculinity is the value of societies in which the social role of men and women is far apart (i.e. men are supposed to be assertive, rude, and focused on material success, while women are imagined to be tender, modest and attentive to themes such as the quality of life), while femininity is the value of a society in which the social roles of the two sexes overlap at least in part. In cultures where gender bias has low scores, the dominant values are caring for others and conservation. People are warm and relationships are important; fathers and mothers deal with facts and feelings in the family; at school a teacher’s friendliness is appreciated, and at work the emphasis is on equality, solidarity and quality of life. In cultures where the gender bias has high scores, the dominant values are success and progress. Money and things are important. In the family, fathers take care of the facts and mothers take care of feelings; at school teachers are appreciated if they are brilliant, and at work the emphasis is on equity, competition between colleagues and performance.

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