INDIVIDUALISM / COLLECTIVISM

Individualism is the value of societies in which the links between individuals are lost: people are considered to be responsible for their own lives and take care of their family. Collectivism is the value of societies in which people are integrated from birth into strong and cohesive groups that continue to protect them throughout their lives in exchange for group loyalty. In cultures where individualism predominates, identity is based on the individual; children learn to think in terms of the “I”, violations imply guilt and loss of self-respect; the employer-employee relationship is experienced in contractual terms, and based on mutual benefit. In cultures where collectivism dominates, identity is based on social networks of belonging; children learn to think in terms of “Us”, violations imply the shame and loss of face for themselves and for the group they belong to, and the employer-employee relationship is experienced in moral terms as a family bond.

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